ДУХОВНИ ОБРАЗИ
ДУХОВНИ ОБРАЗИ
8 юни 2020 г.
Пазарни консултации във връзка с подготовка за изготвяне на техническа спецификация и определяне на прогнозна стойност за общественa поръчкa с предмет „Инженеринг за извършване на неотложни ремонтни работи в Национална библиотека „Св. св. Кирил и Методий –проектиране, строителство и авторски надзор”
9 юни 2020 г.

ГЕМИТЕ НА ОРЛЕАНСКИЯ ХЕРЦОГ

ГЕМИТЕ НА ОРЛЕАНСКИЯ ХЕРЦОГ

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Изкуството на художествена обработка на полускъпоценните камъни достига висоти в античния свят. Чрез изрязването на изображения и сцени от тях се получават геми, които са търсен обект на колекциониране от благородници и заможни представители на различните общества през вековете. Инталиите (камъни с врязани изображения, които нерядко служат и като печати) и камеите (камъни с изпъкнали изображения, които най-често се използват като украшения) се пазят в много музеи и частни колекции по света и привличат вниманието на различни изследователи. През XVIII век за първи път се пристъпва към систематизация на това изкуство. Най-богати колекции от антични и нови геми в наши дни се съхраняват във Виена (Музей на историята на изкуствата), в Париж (Кабинет на медалите на Националната библиотека) и в Санкт Петербург (Ермитаж).

За изработката на геми се използват най-често минералите червен халцедон, сердолик, аметист, ахат, планински кристал, яспис, оникс, а по-рядко аквамарин, сапфир, диамант и рубин. В по-ново време в употреба влизат кехлибарът и някои морски раковини.

Неоценим помощник в работата на изследователите дава съхранената през вековете информация – гравюри, скици, исторически бележки и др. Безспорно най-ценни са каталозите и сродните им справочници, които предоставят визуална информация, пряко свързана с анализ на изображението, подробни сведения за материала и техниката на изработка, историята на тяхното създаване, както и съпътстваща информация за тяхната съдба през вековете.

Такъв безценен справочник е и Каталогът на колекцията от геми на Орлеанския херцог Луи-Филип Жозеф (1747 – 1793) (Description des principales pierres gravées du cabinet de S.A.S. Monseigneur le duc d’Orléans, premier prince de sang. Paris, 1780 – 1784). Книгата е в 2 тома. Съставена е от абат Франсоа Арно (1721 – 1784) – френски свещеник, филолог и писател, който впоследствие става библиотекар на провансалския граф и бъдещ френски крал Луи XVIII. Художник и гравьор е известният френски майстор Габриел-Жак де Сент Обен (1724 – 1780), възпитаник на Кралската Академия по живопис и скулптура в Париж. В началото на първия том е отпечатан алегоричен портрет на херцога, дело на художника Шарл-Никола Кошен Младши (1715 – 1790). В това първо издание са поместени 179 гравюри на камеи и инталии, както и няколко винетки, заставки и 56 изящни концовки. Сред тях са образите на богове и герои, сюжети и сцени от древногръцката митология, римски императори, различни животни, текстове с амулетно предназначение и др. През 1786 г. Луи Филип Орлеански, изкушаван често от хазарта, е принуден да продаде богатата си колекция от геми на руската императрица Екатерина Велика. Днес тя е част от съкровищата на Ермитажа.

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